在托福考试中阅读的词汇量要求最大,这给很多学生都增加了担负,其实作者在提到一些难词、术语时一般都会中止paraphrase,即以更常见、更简单的词来解释阐明这些词,浅显的说就是将这些不太好了解的单词中止同义交流。

  一般说来,我们能够从如下几个方面来中止paraphrase转述表达:

  1. 同义词、反义词的交流

  A

  The elephant is another animal that lives in groups. An elephant herd usually has from twenty to forty members. The elephants in theherd depend on one another for help in time of trouble.

  解析:此处groups/ herd是同义词;

  B

  Dinosaurs were ancient species of reptiles. They lived on Earth for 160 million years. Some dinosaurs were as small as rabbits; others were enormous. Some ate meat, and others ate plants. They disappeared about 65 million years ago. Scientists believe that they starved to death. They think the climate changed quickly and caused many plants to die.

  解析:此处lived/ disappeared;small/enormous; meat /plants均为反义词词组;

  2. 词义词性的交流

  C

  Recently, more airport officers have been shocked by the growth of animal smuggling. Sometimes, they find live turtles, lizards, frogs, and snakes in passengers' carry-on bags. Smugglers use several tricks to bring animals through airports. They put live snakes into film boxes and birds into tennis ball cans. Police even found an iguana taped to a man's chest. Not all animals are smuggled alive, however. Many die on the way. Animal body parts are also found. These include antlers, skins, dried organs, hooves, or feet.

  解析:此处smuggling、Smugglers、 smuggled都是单词smuggle的不同形式,为了表达不同的词性,做不同的成分,分别运用了不同的词性和词义。

  3. 句子结构的交流

  A flying car society has many problems to solve. The first concerns safety. If there are no roads, what will stop people from crashing into each other? It is easy for a single car to travel, but what happens when there are thousands? Another issue is cost. At the moment, it costs several million dollars for one car. How can people afford to buy them? The third issue is fuel. At the moment, it costs several million dollars for one car. How can people afford to buy them? The third issue is fuel. There needs to be enough fuel to supply these cars. The fuel also needs to be less polluting than the kind we use now. Still, technology is advancing. It is likely that these problems will be solved in a few years. Then, dreams of quick and easy flight will be realities.

  解析:此处文中用The first /Another /The third 结构上既避免了重复,又表现了语言的多样性;concerns、issue也是同义词交流;处处表现者语言的多样性;

  在托福阅读中存在着大量的同义交流现象。处置托福阅读过程中的同义词辨认问题,首先应该增强对常见的高频词和常用词的掌握。事实上,越是常用的词,词义越多,词性也越多。所以倡议同学们在平常学习单词要多注意一次多义现象,要留心单词的搭配及常用短语,这样在阅读文章时就能够联络上下文的详细语境,运用我们上面讲到的三类办法更好地辨认同义词,更好天文解阅读原文,就算在遇到不认识的单词时,也能够有效的进步语境的认知及对语篇的掌握。

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新东方董伟娜:托福阅读中的同义交流

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