In the early 1930s, Conservative M.P. Winston Churchill issued unheeded warnings of the threat of Nazi aggression from his seat on a House of Commons backbench.
With German tanks racing across France, Churchill spoke to the British people for the first time as prime minister, and pledged a struggle to the last breath against Nazi conquest and oppression.
In the summer of 1940, the democracies of continental Europe fell to Germany one by one, leaving Great Britain alone in its resistance to Adolf Hitler. The Nazi leader was confident that victory against Britain would come soon, but Churchill prophesied otherwise, telling his countrymen that the Battle of Britain would be "their finest hour."
In 1994, President Clinton authorized a military operation to overthrow Haiti's military dictators and restore its democratically elected leader. On the eve of invasion, bloodshed was prevented when former president Jimmy Carter brokered an agreement with Haiti's leaders in which they pledged to give up power.
Hawking is certainly the most famous physicist in history who has not won the Nobel Prize. This is because the Swedish Royal Academy demands that an award-winning discovery must be supported by verifiable experimental or observational evidence. Hawking's work, to date, remains unproved.
Hawking has made his reputation by investigating, in great detail, one particular set of problems: the singularity and horizons around black holes and at the beginning of time. The idea that the universe had a specific time of origin has been philosophically resisted by some very distinguished scientists.
American Civil War
The American Civil War erupted when southern states seceded from the Union in order to form their own nation. The North's ultimate victory preserved the Union, abolished slavery, and granted citizenship to newly freed slaves. The Civil War also marked the economic and political ascendancy of the rapidly industrializing states of the North.