我们以剑桥4 Test1 Passage2中止演练：
Title: What do whales feel?
An examination of the functioning of the senses in cetaceans, the group of mammals comprising whales, dolphins and porpoises.
从对标题的阅读中，我们能够了解到这篇文章要讲的是鲸的感官，the senses of whales. 在这里我们能够预测下感官有哪些，同时能够对下面文章的内容中止预测。
Some of the senses that we and other terrestrial mammals take for granted are either reduced or absent in cetaceans for fail to function well in water. For example, it appears from their brain structure that toothed species are unable to smell. Baleen species, on the other hand, appear to have some related brain structures but it is not known whether these are functional. It has been speculated that, as the blowholes evolved and migrated to the top of the head, the neural pathways serving sense of smell may have been nearly all sacrificed. Similarly, although at least some cetaceans have taste buds, the nerves serving these have degenerated or are rudimentary.
从首句的主干中得出一些感官在退化，消失或者在水中已失去了功用。紧跟在这句话后面的是个for example, 阐明后面再举些这类型的感官。最后一句以similarly开头，阐明即便最后一句也是一个例子，然后是个名词taste buds, 说到了味觉，用了degenerated, rudimentary描画这个味觉，rudimentary大多数考生不认识，但degenerated能够依据构词法推出是退化。
The sense of touch has sometimes been described as weak too, but this view is probably mistaken. Trainers of captive dolphins and small whales often remark on their animals’ responsiveness to being touched or rubbed, and both captive and free-ranging cetacean individuals of all species (particularly adults and calves, or members of the same subgroup) appear to make frequent contact. This contact may help to maintain order within a group, and stroking or touching are part of the courtship ritual in most species. The area around the blowhole is also particularly sensitive and captive animals often object strongly to being touched there.
The sense of vision is developed to different degrees in different species. Baleen species studied at close quarters underwater-specifically a grey whale calf in captivity for a year, and free-ranging right whales and humpback whales studied and filmed off Argentina and Hawaii-have obviously tracked objects with vision underwater, and they can apparently see moderately well both in water and in air. However, the position of the eyes so restricts and field of vision in baleen whales that they probably do not have stereoscopic vision.
读首句就可看出这段讲的是视觉。最后一句提到了baleen whales的眼睛位置限制了它们的视觉域，they probably do not have stereoscopic vision.
On the other hand, the position of the eyes in most dolphins and porpoises suggests that they have stereoscopic vision forward and downward. Eye position in freshwater dolphins, which often swim on their side or upside down while feeding, suggests that what vision they have is stereoscopic forward and upward. By comparison, the bottlenose dolphin has extremely keen vision in water. Judging from the way it watches and tracks airborne flying fish, it can apparently see fairly well through the air-water interface as well. And although preliminary experimental evidence suggests that their in-air vision is poor, the accuracy with which dolphins leap high to take small fish out of a trainer’s hand provides anecdotal evidence to the contrary.