状语从句 (Adverbial Clause)指句子用作状语时,起副词作用的句子。它能够修饰谓语、非谓语动词、定语、状语或整个句子。依据其作用可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、退让、方式和比较等从句。状语从句一般由连词(隶属连词)引导,也能够由词组引起。从句位于句首或句中时通常用逗号与主句隔开,位于句尾时能够不用逗号隔开。英语(课程)状语从句用在主句后面的较多,而汉语的状语从句用在主句前的较多,因而,在许多状况下,应将状语从句放在主句前面。下面我们经过一些实例阐明其常用的翻译办法。

【真题例句1】

While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians, modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.

解析

可拆分为:While there are almost as many definitions of history //as there are historians, // modern practice most closely conforms to one // that sees history //as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.

主句:modern practice most closely conforms to one;从句:退让状语从句While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians;比较状语从句as there are historians;定语从句that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past修饰one.主干结构是While there are almost as…… as there are…… +主句,While引导退让状语从句,此句与汉语句序契合汉语习惯未作调整,仍放于主句前。从句中as…… as结构是比较级,这句话直译为“有几历史学家,就有几关于历史的定义。

【参考译文】

简直每个历史学家对史学都有自己的界定,但现代史学家的理论最趋向于以为,历史学是试图重现过去的严重史实并对其做出解释。

【真题例句2】

In general, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted can not be well defined.

【解析】

可拆分为:In general, //the tests work most effectively //when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined //and least effectively //when what is to be measured or predicted can not be well defined.

主句:the tests work most effectively when…… and least effectively when……,主句中嵌套了两个并列的时间状语从句when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined和when…… can not be well defined,第二个时间状语从句中又嵌套了一个主语从句what is to be measured or predicted做此状语从句的主语。本句在翻译的时分将一个主从复合句,恰当调整成了两个独立的单句(即:the tests work most effectively when……, and the tests work least effectively when……),并把两个状语分别提早了,更契合汉语表达习惯。

【参考译文】

一般地说,当所要测定的特征能很准确界定时,测试最为有效;而当所要测定或预测的东西不能明白地界定时,测试的效果则最差。

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