The beginning of American literature

American has always been a land of beginnings. After Europeans “ discovered” America in the fifteenth century, the mysterious New World became for many people a genuine hope of a new life, an escape from poverty and persecution, a chance to start again. We can say that, as nation, America begins with that hope. When, however, does American literature begin? 

American literature begins with American experiences. Long before the first colonists arrived, before Christopher Columbus, before the Northmen who found America about year 1,000, Native Americans lived here. Each tribe's literature was tightly woven into the fabric of daily life and reflected the unmistakably American experience of lining with the land. Another kind of experience, one filled with fear and excitement, found its expression in the reports that Columbus and other explorers sent home in Spain, French and English. In addition, the journals of the people who lived and died in the New England wilderness' tell unforgettable tales of hard end sometimes heartbreaking experiences of those early years.

Experience, then, is the key to early American literature. The New World provided a great variety of experiences, and experiences demanded a wide variety of expressions by an even  wider variety of early American writers. These writers included John Smith, who spent only two-and-a-half year: on the American, continent. They included Jonathan Edwards and William Byrd,who thought of themselves as British subjects, never suspecting a revolution that  would create a United States of America with a literature of its own. American Indians, explorers,Puritan ministers, frontier wives, plantation owner一they  are all the creators of the first American literature.

练习:

1) What does “that hope”in the first paragraph refer to?

A)The hope that America would be discovered.
  B) The hope to start a life.
  C) The hope to see the mysteries of the New World.
  D) The hope to find poverty here.

2. When did American literature begin?

A) Before the American natives lived there.
  B) When Columbus and other explorers gent reports back home..
  C) When tire Northmen found America in about 1,000.
  D) Long before the year 1,000.

3. What can we learn from the literature of the tribes of the native Americans?

A) About the everyday fife of the native Americans.
  B) About the arrival of Columbus
  C) About the experience of the first European settlers
  D) About the experience of those who died in the New England wilderness.

4. The main purpose of the last paragraph is to tell the readers that

A) in the early days most American writers were from Great Britain.
B) people with rich life experience became writers.
C) there were many writers in the early days of American history
D) early-day experience provided the foundation for American literature.

5. According to the last paragraph, which of the following statements is true about America literature?

A) Some British writers started American literature.,
  B) Early-day American literature is a reflection of the boring life then.
  C) Some British writers had doubts about the future of American literature.
  D) Some British writers had great confidence in the future of American literature.

环球网校2009年职称英语等级考试网络辅导招生简章

孙老师职称英语基础班开讲,学员反应热烈!

2008年全国及各地职称外语等级考试合格标准 

2002--2008年职称英语等级考试真题试卷及答案汇总 

职称英语复习资料综合类AB级阅读理解精选(1)



环球网校2008年职称英语通过率近100%

百度职称英语  

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答案与解析:

1.分析文章标题:the beginning (开始)of American literature(文学)

2.直接解题:

1) What does “that hope” in the first paragraph(段落) refer to(指, 查阅, 谈到)?
  A)The hope that America would be discovered(发现).
  B) The hope to start(开始) a life(生命, 生活,寿命).
  C) The hope to see the mysteries(神秘的事情, 神秘)  of the New World(新世界).
  D) The hope to find poverty(贫穷) here.

B.解析:首先找到“that hope”在文章中的位置:

(第一段)American has always been a land of beginnings. After(在..之后) Europeans “ discovered”(发现) America in the fifteenth century(世纪), the mysterious(神秘的) New World became for many people a genuine(真正的, 真诚的) hope of a new life, an escape from (逃避)poverty and persecution(迫害), a chance(机会) to start(开始) again(再次). We can say that, as nation, America begins with that hope. When, however, does American literature begin? 

“that hope”就是指前一句中的a genuine hope of a new life/开始新生活的真诚希望。

2. When did American literature (文学)begin(开始)?

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