Academic Lecture解题框架笔记

  Task 4

  Task 4触及到一个学术概念,听力中教授用1-2个例子阐明了这个概念。


  ① 概念定义,用自己的话阐明某个概念,技巧:看到诸如 “this is known as”, “this is referred to as”, “this is called”, “people call this”, “people refer to this as”等相似表达的时分 , 此表达的前边一句话 , 很可能便是阅读中概念的定义句 .

  ② 例子

  ③ 阐明这个例子和概念的关系,这也是很多同学4题只能拿到Fair的原因,因为少了这句话。


  ① 概念只需要一句话就能够, 用时保证在10-15s

  ② 例子只需要summary便能够,不用引用过多细节。恰当参与小细节能够展示获取信息才干,但是矫枉过正就得不偿失了

  ③ 一定要简单概括这个例子和概念的关系

  ④ 假如听力部分的例子中呈现专有名词(如植物名和动物名), 能够用诸如 a kind of plant和 a kind of bird之类的短语表达 , 不会说专有名词不会形成扣分

  ⑤ 想要口语高分一定要用自己的话来总结概念和例子,同时说出例子和概念的关系。



  Perceptual Constancy

  How an object affects our senses depends in part on external conditions, and these conditions are always changing. Anobject viewed from one angle presents a different shape to our eyes than when viewed from another angle; similarly, as the distance from which we view anobject changes, the object will appear larger or smaller. In spite of this,even as conditions change and we see objects differently, we still recognize that they remain the same. This is what is known as perceptual constancy. If not for perceptual constancy, we might have difficulty recognizing familiar objects if we viewed them in a new and different context.



  Let’s take an everyday example an ordinary round plate like you’d find in a kitchen. If you hold the plate directly in front of your face and look at it,what shape do you see? A perfect circle, right?

  Suppose you tilt the plate to a different angle, to a horizontal position, like you’re planning to put food on it, still a perfect circle? No! The circleis now stretched out, flattened into an oval. Do you conclude the platehad actually changed shape? Or that it’s a different object, not the same plate? Of course not! It looks different, but we perceive it as still being the same.

  Here’s a different example. This classroom we’re in. It’s fairly large, right?

  Now,from up close, from the front row, I appear to be relatively big,bigger than if you’re in the last row, right? But let’s say you’re sitting in the front row today but tomorrow you’re sitting in the back row. From back there I’m going to look smaller, but you don’t think I’ve actually gotten smaller. You don’t think you’re seeing a different professor, a guy who looks like me except he’s smaller. No matter where you are, up close or far away, you understand without even thinking about it, that I’m the same size, the same person.

  从 This is what is known as perceptual constancy.我们晓得前面一句话就是Perceptual constancy的定义, even asconditions change and we see objects differently, we still recognize that they remain the same






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