Questions 15? 20

  Read the following article on negotiating techniques and the question on the opposite page .

  For each question 15 ? 20 , mark one letter (A, B, C or D ) on your Answer Sheet for the answer you choose.

  The Negotiating Table:

  You can negotiate virtually anything. Projects, resources, expectations and deadlines are all outcomes of negotiation.

  Some people negotiate deals for a living. Dr Herb Cohen is one of these professional talkers, called in by companies to

  negotiate on their behalf . He approaches the art of negotiation as a game because, as he is usually negotiating for somebody

  else, he says this helps him drain the emotional content from his conversation. He is working in a competitive field and

  needs to avoid being too adversarial. Whether he succeeds or not, it is important to him to make a good impression so that

  people will recommend him.

  The starting point for any deal, he believes, is to identify exactly what you want from each other. More often than not,

  one party will be trying to persuade the other round to their point of view. Negotiation requires two people at the end

  saying ‘yes”. This can be a problem because one of them usually begins by saying “no”. However, although this can make

  talks more difficult, this is often just a starting point in the negotiation game. Top management may well reject the idea

  initially because it is the safer option but they would not be there if they were not interested.

  It is a misconception that skilled negotiators are smooth operators in smart suits. Dr Cohen says that one of his

  strategies is to dress down so that the other side can relate to you. Pitch your look to suit your customer. You do not need

  to make them feel better than you but, For example, dressing in a style that is not overtly expensive or successful will make

  you more approachable. People will generally feel more comfortable with somebody who appears to be like them rather than

  superior to them. They may not like you but they will feel they can trust you.

  Dr Cohen suggests that the best way to sell your proposal is by getting into the world of the other side. Ask questions

  rather than give answers and take an interest in what the other person is saying, even if you think what they are saying is

  silly. You do not need to become their best friends but being too clever will alienate them. A lot of deals are made on

  impressions. Do not rush what you are saying---put a few hesitations in , do not try to blind them with your verbal

  dexterity. Also, you should repeat back to them what they have said to show you take them seriously.

  Inevitably some deals will not succeed. Generally the longer the negotiations go on, the better chance they have because

  people do not want to think their investment and energies have gone to waste. However , joint venture can mean joint risk and

  sometimes , if this becomes too great , neither party may be prepared to see the deal through . More common is a corporate

  culture clash between companies, which can put paid to any deal. Even having agreed a deal, things may not be tied up quickly

  because when the lawyers get involved, everything gets slowed down as they argue about small details.

  De Cohen thinks that children are the masters of negotiation. Their goals are totally selfish. They understand the

  decision-making process within families perfectly. If Mum refuses their request , they will troop along to Dad and pressure

  him. If al else fails, they will try the grandparents, using some emotional blackmail. They can also be very single-minded

  and have an inexhaustible supply of energy for the cause they are pursuing. So there are lesson to be learned from watching

  and listening to children.

  15 Dr Cohen treats negotiation as a game in order to

  A put people at ease

  B remain detached

  C be competitive

  D impress rivals

  16 Many people say “no” to a suggestion in the beginning to

  A convince the other party of their point of view

  B show they are not really interested

  C indicate they wish to take the easy option

  D protect their company’s situation

  17 Dr Cohen says that when you are trying to negotiate you should

  A adapt your style to the people you are talking to

  B make the other side feel superior to you

  C dress in a way to make you feel comfortable.

  D try to make the other side like you

  18 According to Dr Cohen, understanding the other person will help you to

  A gain their friendship

  B speed up the negotiations

  C plan your next move.

  D convince them of your point of view

  19 Deals sometimes fail because

  A negotiations have gone on too long

  B the companies operate in different ways

  C one party risks more than the other.

  D the lawyers work too slowly

  20 Dr Cohen mentions children’s negotiation techniques to show that you should

  A be prepared to try every route

  B try not to make people feel guilty

  C be careful not to exhaust yourself

  D control the decision-making process.

  参考答案:15 B16D 17A 18D19B 20 A

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