关于推理性问题(Inference)

  推理性问题与细节性问题相似,也是对文章详细内容的判别。但推理不但要求掌握文章所表达的字面含义,还要掌握一定的逻辑判别才干及写作技巧知识,从文章外表推出更深层含义,这部分往往出题重量大,难度大,出错也最多,归根结底还是对文章内

  容没有做到真正的了解和掌握。转自环 球 网 校edu24ol.com

  Inference类问题主要包括Significance和Communication Techniques两大类。

  1. Significance

  文字外表往往没有明显反映作者的全部意图,有些含义需要读者从字里行间去体会,靠自己的逻辑推理才干去判别,从上下文的联贯及文中有关部分的暗示去明析作者隐含的意思。这类问题的命题方式有:

  (1)The writer implies but not directly states that__________-.

  (2) It can be inferred from the passage that_________.

  (3) The author strongly suggests that__________ .

  (4) It can be concluded from the passage that________.

  (5) The passage is intended to__________ .

  (6)The writer indicates that__________ .

  Example

  Nursing at Beth Israel Hospital produces the best patient care possible. If we were to solve the nursing shortage, hospital administration and doctors everywhere would do well to follow Beth Israel's example

  At Beth Israel each patient is assigned to a primary nurse who visits at length with the patient and constructs a full-scale health ac-count that covers everything from his medical history to his emotion-al state. Then she writes a care plan centered on the patient's illness but which also includes everything else that is necessary.

  The primary nurse stays with the patient through his hospitalization, keeping track with his progress and seeking further advice from his doctor. If a patient at Beth Israel is not responding to treatment , it is not uncommon for his nurse to propose another approach to his doctor. What the doctor at Beth Israel has in the primary nurse is a true colleague.

  Nursing at Beth Israel also involves a decentralized ( 分散的 )nursing administration; every floor, every unit is a self-contained organization. There are nurse managers instead of head nurses,` in addition to their medical duties they do all their own hiring and dismissing, employee advising, and they make salary recommendations. Each unit's nurse decide among themselves who will work what shifts and when.

  Beth Israel's nurse-in-chief ranks as an equal with other vice presidents of the hospital. She also is a member of the Medical Executive Committee, which in most hospitals includes only doctors.

  It can be inferred from the passage that__________.

  A)compared with other hospitals nurses at Beth Israel Hospital are more patient .

  B)in most hospitals nurses get low salaries

  C)in most hospitals nurses get low salaries转自环 球 网 校edu24ol.com

  D) compared with other hospitals nurses have to work longer hour at Beth Israel Hospital

  本题要求考生判别4个选项中哪一个是依据文章能够推断出的结论,要求考生依据文章内容作出合理的推断。从本题所提供的4个选项来看,文章并未谈及护士的"耐烦"(A);也未谈及护士的"工资待遇"(Q),只是说到护士的工资提升要由各科室推荐;更未触及护士的"工作时间长短"(D)),文章的第一段最后一句才是得出正确答案的依据,这句的意思是:"假如我们确要处置护理工作缺乏的问题,那么各地医院的行政部门和医生最好还是效法一下Beth Israel医院",主句的虚拟语气也阐明这一点:迄今为止还未做到。由此能够推断:①护理不充沛是一个应该处置的问题;②这个问题普遍存在,否则就没有必要要求各地医院行政部门和医生效法这家医院的做法。因而本题的正确答案为B),本题属于局域型问题的间接性问题,这类问题是考生出错最多的题型。在做这类问题时,切忌从篇章的个别句子中寻找答案,而应把眼光放在全篇的了解上:作者写这篇文章的目的是什么,针对什么问题,如何处置等。有许多考生可能都有这种体验:有的问题,第一遍阅读时做对了,第二遍再细读后,又改错了。这就是因为他们在读第二遍时注意了对篇章的个别句于的琢磨,而无视了整篇文章的大意。

  2. Communication Techniques

  文章中的每一句话都有它的作用和目的,都是为作者的写作而效劳的。有的是下层意思的铺垫,有的是上旬话的结果,相互烘托,相互联络。四级阅读中常常就技巧性问题提问,测试读者对文章能否正确了解。这类题的命题方式有:

  (1)The fact . . . is mentioned by the author to show _________.

  (2)The author achieves his purpose by depending mainly upon

  (3)The writer talks about . . . in order io_________ .

  (4) In discussing . . . , the author .

  (5)The author's statement about . . . is a . . . for . . .

  Example :

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