解题类型及应试技巧

  (1) 主题思想常见提问方式及答题技巧

  主题思想题在考试中呈现的频率较高,因为这类题可调查考生抓主要信息的才干,而能够抓住文章的主要信息又是阅读才干的一个极为重要的方面。

  这类题在设题经常会用到title, subject, main idea ,topic,theme等词。常见的提问形式有以下几种:

  What is the main idea of the passage?

  Which of the following would be the best title?

  What‘s the best title for the passage?

  The main idea of the passage is that _____.

  This passage tells us _____.

  Which of the following statements best expresses the main ideaofthe passage?

  What does the passage mainly discuss?

  做这类题经常用略读法,把注意力放在抓主要信息上,不去过火注意细节事实,否则会形成“只见树木,不见森林”的结果。通常的办法是,快速阅读文章时注意找出各段主题句。英文文章各段主题句常放在段首,有时也放在段尾或段落中间,有时不明白写出,通读文章后把各段主题句联络起来,一般就能得出文章主题。

  就整篇文章来讲,首段和尾段一般关于解这类题更为重要。我们以97年统考试卷中阅读了解部分的第一篇文章为例:

  How often one hears children wishing they were grown up, andoldpeople wishing they were young again. Each age has itspleasuresand its pains, and the happiest person is the one whoenjoys whateach age gives him without wasting his time in uselessregrets.

  Childhood is a time when there are few responsibilities tomakelife difficult. If a child has good parents, he is fed,lookedafter and loved ,whatever he may do .It is impossible that hewillever again in his life be given so much without having todoanything in return .In addition ,life is always presentingnewthings to the child――things that have lost their interest forolderpeople because they are too well-know. But a child has hispains:he is not so free to do what he wishes to do; he iscontinuallybeing told not to do things, or being punished for whathe has donewrong.

  When the young man starts to earn his own living, he can nolongerexpect others to pay for his food, his clothes, and hisroom, buthas to work if he wants to live comfortably. If he spendsmost ofhis time playing about in the way that he used to as achild, hewill go hungry. And if he breaks the laws of society ashe used tobreak the laws of his parents, he may go to prison. Ifhowever, heworks hard, keeps out of trouble and has good health,he can havethe great happiness of building up for himself his ownposition insociety.

  文章后面第四个问题是:

  The main idea of the passage is that _____.

  A. life is not enjoyable since each age has some pains

  B. young men can have the greatest happiness if they workhard

  C. childhood is the most enjoyable time in one‘s life

  D. one is the happiest if he can make good use of each age inhislife

  文章的第一段讲的是人们常听说孩子们盼着长大成人,老年人则希望返老还童。人生的每个阶段总是欢乐伴着苦恼,而最幸福的人则是那些既享受人生每一阶段所带来的欢乐,又没有因虚度年华而终生懊悔的人。第二段讲述了一个人儿童时期的欢乐与苦恼,第三段则通知读者青年人的责任与义务,机遇和应战。从以上三段文字来看,第一段中第二句即是主题句,所以我们应选D为正确答案。

  (2) 主要事实和细节题设题思绪及答题技巧

  主要事实和细节题就是我们平常所说的由who ,what ,where ,when ,why,which,how引出的问题。这是极为常见的阅读了解题。这类题主要是针对论证支持主题的事实或例证设题,可能触及数学计算、概念了解以及是非判别等。

  这类题的办法一般是先用寻读法找出与问题相关的词语或句子,再对相关部分中止细读,找出问题答案。

  这类题提问的形式多种多样,常见的有以下几种:

  Which of the following (statements) is Not mentioned inthepassage?

  According to the passage,which of the following statementsistrue?

  According to the passage, all of the following are trueexcept_____

  How many…?

  What…?

  Why…?

  解这类题时,审题是关键,首先一定得看清问题。比如一句结论性的话后边到底是…is true,还是isnottrue.另外,由于细节题比较容易,有时为了增加测试难度,命题人员在题干或选项中要增加一些文字或意义上的干扰。所以考生很少能在原文中找到一模一样的现成答案。

  我们引用2002年试题为例。

  On Novr 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln went to GettysburginPennsylvania to speak at the National Soldiers Cemetery. TheCivilWar was still going on. There was much criticism ofPresidentLincoln at the time. He was not at all popular. He hadbeen invitedto speak at Gettysburg only out of politeness. Theprincipalspeaker was to be Edward Everett, a famous statesman andspeaker ofthe day. Everett was a handsome man and verypopulareverywhere.

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